Diabetes Mellitus is a disease in which the body is not producing insulin properly. Insulin allows the body to use glucose(sugar) for energy. Without it the glucose stays in the blood and causes problems. Also the cells are deprived of glucose and that also causes additional problems. High blood sugar causes symptoms such as increased urination, increased water drinking, increased appetite, weight loss and urinary tract infections.
Obesity, Pancreatitis, and steroid administration can all predispose a cat to diabetes. Certain cats may be able to be treated with dietary changes and weight loss, but most require daily blood sugar testing and long acting insulin shots. The amount of insulin needed can change over time and your cat may need to be re-regulated periodically by analyzing repeated blood sugar levels over 12 hours. If diagnosed early and treated properly, many cats can go into diabetic remission. Remember to always refrigerate the insulin and to roll it, NEVER shake it.